It is very essential to take safety precautions when working with electricity. Safety must not be compromised. There are certain rules you need to know that will help you in safe handling of electricity while working with it.
1. Never touch or try repairing any electrical equipment or circuits when your hands, feet or body are wet or when standing on a wet floor. It increases the conductivity of electric current.
2. Never use tools with damaged insulation handles when working on any electrical devices.
3. Switch off the mains when servicing or repairing any electrical or electronic device except when it is necessary. It is also a good idea to put up a sign on the mains, so that no one will switch it on by accident.
4.Use only insulated tools while working on electrical devices.
5.Do not store highly flammable liquids near electrical equipment .
6. Never try repairing energized equipment. Always check that it is de-energized first by using a tester.
7. Always use a circuit breaker or fuse with the appropriate current rating. Circuit breakers and fuses are protection devices that automatically disconnect the power when a condition of short circuit, over load or over current occurs in a circuit. The selection of the appropriate fuse or circuit breaker is essential.
8. Always put a cap on the live wire while working on an electric board or service panel in order to avoid short circuiting between the bare ends of the live and neutral wire. It can also help to prevent shock when touched mistakenly.
9. Be careful while removing a capacitor from a circuit. A capacitor stores energy and if it’s not properly discharged when removed it can easily cause an electric shock. An easy way to discharge low voltage capacitor is that after removal from the circuit is to put the tip of two insulated screw drivers on the capacitor terminals. This will discharge it. For high voltage ones a 12 Volts light bulb can be used. Connecting the bulb with the capacitor will light up the bulb using up the last of the stored energy.
10. Be careful while soldering your circuit. Keep yourself away from the fumes. Always Keep the solder iron in its stand when not in use; it can get extremely hot and can easily cause burns.
11. Treat all electrical devices as if they are live or energized. You never know.
12.Apply the one hand rule, i.e. work with one hand and keep the other hand at your side or in your pocket , away from all conductive material . This precaution reduces the likelihood of accidents that result in current passing through your body. Only apply this rule when possible.
13. If water or a chemical is spilled onto electrical/electronic equipment , unplug the equipment before cleaning it. Never try to remove water from equipment while it is plugged.
14.If an individual comes in contact with a live electrical conductor , do not touch the equipment , cord or person . Be calm in order not to make the situation worse. Disconnect the power FIRST before taking any action or you use a non-conducting material to push or hit the person. Do not hit the head or leg of the person, just hit the back.
15.When it is necessary to touch electrical equipment ( for example , when checking for overheated motors ) , use the back of the hand . Thus , if accidental shock were to cause muscular contraction , you would not “ freeze ” to the conductor .
16. Switch off electrical items or gadgets that are not in regular use at the plug and ensure that when you are away from the house for any length of time that you unplug and switch off electrical items as items left plugged in can be a fire risk and waste energy if left on standby.